O’Melveny Worldwide

Monica Hwang counsels clients on energy-related project development matters, including joint ventures and complex commercial transactions. She has extensive experience working on liquefied natural gas import and export projects, handling the structuring for equity lifting; implementing tolling and sales models; and advising on gas supply and marketing arrangements. Among her vast industry experience is serving an integral role in the development of Freeport LNG—at the time, the largest non-recourse project financing in history—as well a consortium of investors into the Dominican Republic LNG import terminal, for which the joint venture won Latin American Finance Project of the Year.

Monica also advises on midstream and downstream project and commercial matters, including gas and crude oil/refined product terminalling.

Fluent in Mandarin Chinese, Monica is skilled at helping clients navigate cross-border transactions.

Prior to her legal career, Monica held various managing and contributor roles in upstream production, gas processing and wholesale, and retail energy trading and risk management.

Multiple legal publications have recognized Monica for her work in the oil and gas sector, such as IFLR 1000, who ranks Monica as a Highly Regarded lawyer; The Legal 500 US, who ranks Monica as a Key Lawyer; and Chambers USA, who lists Monica as a “Notable Practitioner” and “Up and Coming” lawyer in its Projects: LNG category.

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Liquefied Natural Gas

  • Representing a small-scale project developer in the negotiation of various LNG import projects in Latin America
  • Represented shareholder investing in the $1 billion Gatun power plant in Panama, including negotiations of complex LNG import terminal use arrangements
  • Advised a shipping company on an LNG bunkering arrangements for its new-build vessels
  • Advised two LNG projects under development in western Canada
  • Advised NextDecade on its LNG marketing efforts, including the drafting of the announced 2 MTPA sales agreement with Shell
  • Represented Mozambique in the drafting and negotiation of LNG sales agreements with buyers, including the announced innovative 2.6 MTPA agreement with Tokyo Gas and Centrica
  • Represented a consortium in the negotiation of joint venture and shared terminal use arrangements in connection with their investment into expansion of the Dominican Republic LNG import terminal, as well as supplies for power plant generation
  • Advised sellers in the drafting and negotiation of LNG SPAs for the Tortue LNG project in Africa
  • Advised an oil major in gas supply and project use arrangements in connection with the Alaska LNG project 
  • Represented Freeport LNG in the drafting and negotiation of liquefaction tolling agreements in connection with all three LNG trains, as well as related project structuring documents
  • Represented the developer of a LNG peaking facility in the drafting and negotiation of precedent agreement for LNG liquefaction and delivery services and other project documents
  • Advised EOG and Encana in connection with project structuring and documentation for the Kitimat LNG project in Canada
  • Represented an E&P company in the drafting and negotiations of joint operating agreements and related documents for the Wheatstone LNG project in Australia
  • Advised a US utility company in its development of strategies to procure additional natural gas supplies, including by way of LNG importation


  • Advised a Canadian company in the negotiation of propane offtake arrangements to support its new propane terminal development
  • Advised a US developer in joint venture structuring and negotiations in respect of a multi-commodity terminal in Texas
  • Representing an E&P company on procuring LPG terminal arrangements and related exchange and offtake arrangements
  • Represented Sendero in the negotiation of raw product delivery and processing agreements with Targa
  • Advised USD Partners in the drafting and negotiations of crude rail terminalling arrangements with ConocoPhillips in connection with its acquisition and restart of the Stroud terminal in Oklahoma
  • Represented a private equity firm in its acquisition of an option to purchase all rights to develop a gas storage project in Louisiana
  • Represented a major oil company in the drafting and negotiation of a transportation services agreement in a proposed new crude oil pipeline
  • Represented a joint venture in the development of the Texas Offshore Port System, an offshore crude oil terminal

Upstream Oil and Gas

  • Advised an Australian company in its acquisition of oil and gas leases in the United States
  • Represented a US company in its acquisition of oil and gas interests in Europe, including the drafting of joint operating agreement
  • Represented Tiway Oil AS in connection with its acquisition from Toreador Resources Corporation of its Turkish subsidiary, Toreador Turkey Ltd, which has interests in both producing and exploration oil and gas acreage, onshore and offshore Turkey
  • Represented an international E& P company in its acquisition of interests in leases located in the Gulf of Mexico and a collaborative exploration agreement with a major US oil company
  • Represented an international consortium regarding a development and production sharing agreement, joint operating agreement and related upstream agreements for the further development of the Bahrain Field

Alternative and Renewable Energy

  • Advised a developer on a proposed carbon capture and sequestration project involving tax equity financing
  • Advised a renewable biogas producer on LCFS monetization arrangements for its biogas projects
  • Represented a global package delivery company in the drafting and negotiation of agreements for the sale and purchase of verified emissions reduction credits
  • Advised the US subsidiary of a global metals manufacturer in the preparation of an application for a DOE loan guarantee and related financing matters
  • Represented Millennium Energy Holdings in the sale of its largest unregulated energy investment and related agreement to share certain proceeds derived from the marketing of certified emission reduction credits under the Kyoto Protocol
  • Represented CAES Development Company, LLC in the sale of all rights in a compressed air energy storage (CAES) project to FirstEnergy Generation Corp.
  • Advised a utility company on Texas law issues and transactional documents in connection with the acquisition of a 150-MW wind farm
  • Represented a power-generation company in the purchase of a Guatemalan company holding a concession and other rights for the development of a 29MW hydroelectric power plant


  • Represented various clients, including a manufacturer, in the drafting and negotiation of ISDA master agreements, with a focus on ISDA master agreements for commodity hedges
  • Represented a European client in its acquisition of a Mexican real estate company
  • Represented a client in the development of a petrochemical plant in the Middle East
  • Advised an international consulting company in the petroleum and natural gas laws of the United States, Brazil and Spain with a focus on energy security policies
  • Advised a professional sports team in connection with its marketing and sponsorship agreements, as well as leases and event services agreements


  • Mandarin Chinese
  • Taiwanese


Bar Admissions

  • Texas


  • University of Houston, J.D.
  • The University of Texas at Austin, B.B.A.: cum laude

Honors & Awards

  • Recognized by Chambers USA in the category of Projects: LNG (2022-2023)
  • Ranked by Chambers Global for Projects: LNG (2023)
  • Recognized by Chambers Global as an “Up and Coming” lawyer for Projects: LNG (2022)
  • Recognized as a “Key Lawyer” for Energy Transactions: Oil and Gas, The Legal 500 US (2021)
  • Recognized as a “Highly Regarded” Lawyer for Oil and Gas, IFLR1000
  • Burton Award for Excellence in Legal Writing (2014) for “Overview of Issues Common to Structuring, Negotiating and Documenting LNG Projects,” Journal of World Energy Law & Business (October 2013)

Professional Activities

Speaker or Panelist

  • “Emerging Trends from 2023 Developments in US LNG Projects,” 75th Annual Energy Law Conference (February 22, 2024)
  • “LNG SPA Model Contract,” AIEN Seminar at NAPE (February 6, 2024)
  • Presiding Officer, 2023 Gas and Power Institute (October 27, 2023)
  • “2023 Natural Gas Development: Policy and Legal Considerations,” International Law Institute (June 15, 2023)
  • “Contracting & Risk Management on Major LNG Projects,” LNG Export Engineering & Construction Conference (May 31, 2023)
  • “Gas in the Energy Transition,” AIEN Seminar at NAPE (January 31, 2023)
  • “Trends for a Third Wave of US LNG Projects,” Bank of America Securities 2021 Global Energy Conference (November 18, 2021)
  • “Force Majeure in LNG,” hosted by a financial institution for its investor clients (April 2020)
  • “U.S. Hydrocarbon Exports: A Legal and Practical View.” 6th Midstream Oil & Gas Law Conference, The Center for American and International Law (December 11, 2019)
  • “LNG Project Development,” International Oil & Gas Law, Contracts, and Negotiations Conference, Institute for Energy Law (October 3, 2019)
  • Presiding Officer, 18th Annual Gas and Power Institute, The University of Texas School of Law Continuing Legal Education (September 26, 2019)
  • “Updates on LNG Contracting,” Bank of America Merrill Lynch LNG Conference (March 2019)
  • “LNG Contracting Structures,” 17th Annual Gas and Power Institute, The University of Texas School of Law Continuing Legal Education (September 20, 2018)
  • “Structuring LNG Tolling Agreements: Negotiating Fee Structure and Payment, Lifting Terms, Liability, and Other Key Provisions,” Strafford Publications Inc. Webinar (May 16, 2017)
  • “LNG Development & Pitfalls on the Regulatory Side,” Houston Marine Insurance Seminar (September 2014)


  • “Liquefied Natural Gas Outlook: Industry Under Pressure,” Law360 (March 8, 2023)


  • IEL International Practice Committee
  • Oil and Gas Specialist, Thomson Reuters Corporate and M&A Advisory Board